By M. D. Walker (auth.), Prof. Dr. F. Stuart Chapin III, Prof. Dr. Christian Körner (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3642789668

ISBN-13: 9783642789663

ISBN-10: 3642789684

ISBN-13: 9783642789687

As human populations extend and feature expanding entry to technol­ ogy, common environmental issues have arisen. First, human pop­ ulations are having expanding impression on the planet method, such that we're changing the biospheric carbon swimming pools, uncomplicated procedures of elemental biking and the weather approach of the earth. as a result of time lags and feedbacks, those strategies aren't simply reversed. those adjustments are happening now extra swiftly than at any time within the final a number of million years. Secondly, human actions are inflicting adjustments within the earth's biota that result in species extinctions at a price and importance rivaling these of prior geologic extinction occasions. even supposing environmental switch is very likely reversible at a while scales, the lack of species is irrevo­ cable. alterations in range at different scales also are reason for obstacle. Habitat fragmentation and declines in inhabitants sizes regulate genetic di­ versity. Loss or creation of recent sensible teams, akin to nitro­ gen fixers or rodents onto islands can strongly modify atmosphere approaches. alterations in panorama range via habitat amendment and frag­ mentation modify the character of tactics inside of and between crops patches. even if either ecological adjustments changing the earth approach and the lack of biotic variety were significant assets of shock in recent times, those issues were mostly self reliant, with little crisis for the environmental reasons the atmosphere outcomes of alterations in biodiversity. those strategies are basically interrelated. adjustments in ecological platforms reason adjustments in diversity.

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Extra resources for Arctic and Alpine Biodiversity: Patterns, Causes and Ecosystem Consequences

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Zh Russk Bot Obshchestva 31(5-5):459-472 Walker DA (1985) Vegetation and environmental gradients ofthe Prudhoe Bay region, Alaska. US Army Cold Reg Res Eng Lab, Rep 85-14, Hanover Walker DA, Walker MD (1991) History and Pattern of disturbance in Alaskan arctic terrestrial ecosystems: a hierarchical approach to analysing landscape change. J Appl EcoI28:244-276 Walker DA, Walker MD, Everett KR, Webber PJ (1985) Pingos of the Prudhoe Bay Region, Alaska. Arc Alp Res 17:321-336 Walker DA, Binnian E, Evans BM, Lederer ND, Nordstrand E, Webber PJ (1989) Terrain, vegetation and landscape evolution of the R4D research site, Brooks Range Foothills, Alaska.

1991). Taxonomic problems abound when an aggregate of apomicts is formed by multiple hybridizations among sexual relatives. Taken one at a time, the agamic microspecies have been described, named, and treated taxonomically as independent units. Since repeated hybridizations have produced many forms that blend together, when considered as a whole, the morphological discontinuities become relatively insignificant, and consistent taxonomic discrimination of the microspecies is virtually impossible (Bayer 1990).

B. 1 Introduction Low species diversity in arctic plant communities is low genetic diversity at one level. However, in this chapter I address the question of levels of withinspecies genetic variation in tundra plants. As studies in biogeography and physiological, population, community and ecosystem ecology typically ignore this level of variation, much less is known about within-species diversity than diversity of species in arctic and alpine (as well as other) communities. However, I will argue that in species-poor ecosystems such as tundra, within-species diversity may be as important as among-species diversity in terms of maintaining the integrity or persistence of tundra ecosystems in the face of climate change.

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Arctic and Alpine Biodiversity: Patterns, Causes and Ecosystem Consequences by M. D. Walker (auth.), Prof. Dr. F. Stuart Chapin III, Prof. Dr. Christian Körner (eds.)

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