By David Levy, Monroe Newborn (auth.)
For a while now, i've got felt that the time is true to write down a booklet approximately laptop Chess. Ever because the first makes an attempt at chess professional gramming have been made, a few twenty 5 years in the past, curiosity within the topic ha"s grown from yr to 12 months. through the overdue Fifties the topic used to be first dropped at the eye of the general public by means of a piece of writing in Scient(fic American, and no more than a decade later a chess software used to be competing in a event with people. extra lately, there were tournaments during which the one members have been desktop courses. and while the 1st global computing device Championship used to be held in Stockholm in 1974 the development was once an exceptional good fortune. Laymen frequently doubt the worth of making an investment in a topic so esoteric as machine chess, yet there's certainly substantial profit to be received from a research of the automisation of chess and different highbrow video games. If it proves attainable to play such video games good by way of desktop, then the thoughts hired to examine and determine destiny positions in those video games may also be necessary in different difficulties in long-range making plans. i've got attempted to make this publication either attention-grabbing and instructive. those that comprehend whatever in any respect approximately chess yet who've no wisdom of pcs, should be in a position to stick to my description of ways pcs play chess. people with an information of either components will nonetheless locate a lot to curiosity them.
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Additional info for All About Chess and Computers: Chess and Computers and More Chess and Computers
For example, if two rooks are on the same file they can both be considered to be attacking an enemy piece on that file because the attack by one of the rooks is being supported from behind by the other one. The squares attacked by each piece are ennumerated separately and added, so that if a square were attacked by four white pieces this added four times the usual square attack value to White's score. The most interesting feature of SOMA was the swap-off values. These values determined, in a very simple way, whether or not a particular exchanging sequence was likely to be profitable, without the necessity of performing any look-ahead whatsoever.
If it follows the branch that represents R-R6 then it will reach the position in diagram 6, represented by node Pl' If it chooses the branch representing R-R7 then it will reach P 2 which represents the position of diagram 7. Similarly for R- R8 and RxP. t. § DIAGRAMS Fig. 19a White has a choice offour moves. 19b A tree of depth one "half-move" representing the situation shown in Fig. 19a DIAGRAM 7 Po DIAGRAM 9 ..... v, [ '" (j ~ ~ ;: ~ ~ f ~ ~ 36 How Computers Play Chess by evaluating all the nodes at the lower extremities of the tree (called the terminal nodes) the program can decide which move to make.
White's QRl is called 11, White's K4 is called 54, and so on. Next, a number is assigned to each piece so that if a program investigates the contents of one of these locations the number stored in that location will identify the piece. A simple coding system might be pawn = 1 knight = 2 bishop = 3 rook = 4 queen = 5 king = 6 and a black piece might be identified by giving the negative value for that piece, so that -2 represented a black knight and -6 the black king. If a square on the chess board was empty then its storage location would contain a zero.
All About Chess and Computers: Chess and Computers and More Chess and Computers by David Levy, Monroe Newborn (auth.)