By Ian Duck, E. C. G. Sudarshan
This research takes the reader from Planck’s discovery of the quantum in 1900 to interpretations and functions of non-relativistic quantum mechanics initially of the twenty first century. The creation of the quantum notion leads off the prehistory of quantum mechanics, that includes Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Compton and de Broglie’s contributions. Their unique discovery papers are featured with explanatory notes and advancements partially One. the discovery of matrix mechanics and quantum mechanics through Heisenberg, Born, Jordan, Dirac and Schrodinger is gifted subsequent partially . Following that, partially 3, are the Einstein-Bohr debates at the interpretation of quantum mechanics culminating in Bell’s inequality and Aspect’s test demonstrating the reality of the lengthy variety quantum correlations to which Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen took nice exception. Resolutions of quantum paradoxes and the present country of such debates are summarized. half 4 offers a variety of the main dramatic smooth advancements, either theoretical and experimental. those comprise Feynman course integrals, the fashionable interpretation in response to decoherence, quantum optics experiments resulting in teleportation, DeWitt’s wave functionality of the universe, and a quick creation to the end-of-the-millennium customers of quantum computation. A concluding bankruptcy provides the authors’ conjectures for the subsequent a hundred years of the quantum.
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Extra info for 100 Years of Planck’s Quantum
D. Phys. 764 (1900). 2) (Note added in translation: Here Wien embarks on a discussion of uncompensated de polarization of scattered rays, leading in his opinion to irreversibility. ) 3) E. Jahnke, O. Lummer and E. Pringsheim, Ann. d. Phys. 4, 225 (1900). 4) W. Wien, Ann. d. Phys. 3, 530 (1900). ) Chapter I. Planck Invents the Quantum 31 Paper 1-4: Excerpt from Annalen der Physik 4, 553 (1901). On t h e Energy Distribution in t h e B l a c k b o d y S p e c t r u m von M a x Planck (Communicated also in the Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft, Sitzung vora 19.
Planck Invents the Quantum 43 Paper 1-6: Excerpt from Die Naturwissenschaften, 14/15, 153 (1943). Reflections on the Discovery of the Quantum of Action von M A X P L A N C K , Berlin. A new epoch of physical science began with the discovery of the fundamental quantum of action. I feel the need and the obligation to record the way I arrived at the calculation of this fundamental constant, at least as it seems compressed in my memory. I To this end I must go back to my student years. What interested me above everything else in Physics was the great general laws which have significance for all natural processes, independent of the properties of the matter taking part in the particular process, and independent of any assumptions which one might make about its structure.
Deutsch. Phys. Gesellsch. 2, 66 (1900). 11) M. Planck, Ann. d. Phys. 1, 69 (1900). Here as P a p e r I I . 12) F. Kurlbaum, Wied. Ann. 65, 759 (1898). 13) 0 . Lummer u. E. Pringsheim, Verhandl. der Deutsch. Physikal. Gesellsch. 2, 176 (1900). 14) [Note added in translation: This statement is not quite accurate. 55 x 10" 2 7 (1% low). ] P a p e r 1-5: Excerpt from Annalen der Physik 4, 564 (1901). 244. ) In his fundamental paper "On the Relation Between the Second Law of Ther modynamics and the Probability Basis of the Law of Thermal Equilibrium", Boltz mann  found the equilibrium entropy of a monatomic gas to be the logarithm of the probability of the state.
100 Years of Planck’s Quantum by Ian Duck, E. C. G. Sudarshan